NPM Strategies

I came across these following strategies mentioned in a dissertation while browsing and hope this would help my readers.

Nagaraj (1991) substituted N:P:K with compost from cow dung, grass and dry leaves. Biospray of neem, glyricidia were successful against pests. Cow’s or ox’s urine spray served as a good source of growth promoter or control of insect and disease. Application of decayed material of glyricidia, touch me not weed, transplanting paddy on full moon day and spraying 10 per cent cow’s urine solution
once in fifteen days helped to get 680 kg of paddy per acre.

Shantimole (1991) reported that Glyricidia was applied for vegetables and good crop was obtained. Similarly dry leaves, crop residues, and cut grass was applied to plant’s base. Mud from forest and tanks were mixed and applied to plants. Neem cake was used for slow wilt of pepper. Mixture of garlic and sesame was used to
control yellow leaf disease of areca.

Vivek and Julie (1991) reported about the use of garlic solution against aphids, fungal and bacterial attack on turmeric. Garlic solution was also successful against cotton and fruit trees curl but growing trap crop was much better. Nutrients were supplied using cow dung, leaf compost, grass crushed and dried sugarcane, glyricidia,
neem leaves, pulse plants and mulch crops such as red gram, horse gram and groundnut. Growing intercrops such as coriander, garlic and onion controlled many insects and diseases.

Baphna (1992) reported that with the use of organic fertilizers such as oil cakes and mulches, the sapota plantation which was very weak due to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, became healthier.

Gupta (1992) reported the results of experiments conducted by Gangopadhyay and Das on the bacterial leaf blight of rice. Cow dung slurry was found effective in reducing the disease incidence to 20-37 per cent when stale cow dung was used. Disease incidence of only 4.5 per cent was observed when fresh cow dung was used.

Bhaskar and Ashok (1993) found that application of cow dung, poultry manure, home and town compost maintained soil fertility. Weeds were not uprooted as they protected the moisture in the soil by preventing strong sunlight to fall on soil and when decomposed it became additional manure. They reported that pests like spiders, red ants, some birds, etc., did not harm the plants but acted as predators for harmful pests and rodents.

Budathoki (1993) examined that the application of cattle urine in the form of top dressing was a traditional practice used by farmers in Nepal to manure vegetable crops. The diluted solution (1:1) of fresh (preferably 7-10 days old) animal urine was applied at the Rate of 50 ml per plant which was found to be as good as urea or ammonium sulphate application.

Balasubramanian et al. (1995) identified that farmers followed cow dung coating for cotton seeds, soaking sorghum seeds in cow urine, soaking Bengal gram seeds in water and soaking sorghum seeds common salt water. Regarding plant protection measures, cow dung cake was used as burrow fumigant, displaying crow’s carcass for scaring birds and beating empty iron drums to ward off birds.

Gothi (1996) reported the effect of buttermilk on some crops. Buttermilk sprayed on twenty five day old rain fed crop of groundnut resulted in the higher yield of pods and fodder compared to the control. On cotton and sesame crops, it helped to survive the water stress period of 47 days caused by delayed rains.

Ramesh et al. (2007) reported that farmers used FYM as the predominant source of organic manure followed by Narayan Devaraj Pandey (NADEP) compost, biogas slurry, green manure and cow horn manure, bone meal, poultry manure, neem cake and karanjee cake were used as manures from off-farm resources. Spraying of neem oil (32.6%), cow urine (18.4%), and fermented butter milk (16.3%) were the most frequently used methods of pest control by organic farmers.

Rajak (1993) delineated the dysfunctional consequences of pesticide usage such as development of resistance in pests to pesticides, resurgence of pests, elevation in the status of minor pests, harmful pesticides residues, undesirable effects on non target species’, general environmental pollution and ecological imbalance.

Extracts courtesy “Non-Pesticidal Management in Crops: Community Managed Extension, Processes and Impacts” by
Mahesh Malgatti

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